Passive Self Resonant Skin Patch Sensor to Monitor Intraventricular Volume using Electromagnetic Properties of Fluid Volume Changes

October 10, 2018

Fayez Alruwali, Kim Cluff, Jacob Griffith, Hussam Farhoud

Passive Self Resonant Skin Patch Sensor to Monitor Intraventricular Volu...

This paper focuses on the development of a passive, lightweight skin patch sensor that can measure fluid volume changes in the heart in a non-invasive, point-of-care setting. The wearable sensor is an electromagnetic, self-resonant sensor configured into a specific pattern to formulate its three passive elements (resistance, capacitance, and inductance). In an animal model, a bladder was inserted into the left ventricle (LV) of a bovine heart, and fluid was injected using a syringe to simulate stoke volume (SV). In a human study, to assess the dynamic fluid volume changes of the heart in real time, the sensor frequency response was obtained from a participant in a 30° head-up tilt (HUT), 10° HUT, supine, and 10° head-down tilt positions over time. In the animal model, an 80-mL fluid volume change in the LV resulted in a downward frequency shift of 80.16 kHz. In the human study, there was a patterned frequency shift over time which correlated with ventricular volume changes in the heart during the cardiac cycle. Statistical analysis showed a linear correlation R²=0.98 and 0.87 between the frequency shifts and fluid volume changes in the LV of the bovine heart and human participant, respectively. In addition, the patch sensor detected heart rate in a continuous manner with a 0.179% relative error compared to electrocardiography. These results provide promising data regarding the ability of the patch sensor to be a potential technology for SV monitoring in a non-invasive, continuous, and non-clinical setting.

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