Tissue Variability and Antennas for Power Transfer to Wireless Implantable Medical Devices

August 9, 2017

Kara N. BocanMarlin H. MickleErvin Sejdic

Early Access Note:
Early Access articles are new content made available in advance of the final electronic or print versions and result from IEEE’s Preprint or Rapid Post processes. Preprint articles are peer-reviewed but not fully edited. Rapid Post articles are peer-reviewed and edited but not paginated. Both these types of Early Access articles are fully citable from the moment they appear in IEEE Xplore.


Tissue Variability and Antennas for Power Transfer to Wireless Implantable Medical Devices

The design of effective transcutaneous systems demands consideration of inevitable variations in tissue characteristics, which vary across body areas, among individuals, and over time. The purpose of the current study was to design and evaluate several printed antenna topologies for ultra high-frequency (UHF) transcutaneous power transfer to implantable medical devices, and to investigate the effects of variations in tissue properties on dipole and loop topologies. Here we show that a loop antenna topology provides the greatest achievable gain with the smallest implanted antenna, while a dipole system provides higher impedance for conjugate matching and the ability to increase gain with a larger external antenna. In comparison to the dipole system, the loop system exhibits greater sensitivity to changes in tissue structure and properties in terms of power gain, but provides higher gain when the separation is on the order of the smaller antenna dimension. The dipole system was shown to provide higher gain than the loop system at greater implant depths for the same implanted antenna area, and was less sensitive to variations in tissue properties and structure in terms of power gain at all investigated implant depths. The results show the potential of easily-fabricated, low-cost printed antenna topologies for UHF transcutaneous power, and the importance of environmental considerations in choosing the antenna topology.



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