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Current and Future Challenges in Point-of-Care Technologies: A Paradigm-Shift in Affordable Global Healthcare With Personalized and Preventive Medicine

A. Dhawan, W. Heetderks, M. Pavel, S. Acharya, M. Akay, A. Mairal, B. Wheeler, C. Dacso, T. Sunder, N. Lovell, M. Gerber, M. Shah, S.G. Senthilvel, M. Wang, B. Bhargava

This paper summarizes the panel discussion at the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Point-of-Care Healthcare Technology Conference (POCHT 2013) held in Bangalore India from Jan 16–18, 2013. Modern medicine has witnessed interdisciplinary technology innovations in healthcare with a continuous growth in life expectancy across the globe…


See complete bios of the authors in the full version of this article.

A DhawanA Dhawan
Dr. Dhawan is currently a Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Vice Provost of Research with the New Jersey Institute of Technology, where he serves as the Executive Director of the Interdisciplinary Design Studio, and is an Adjunct Professor of Radiology with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.

W HeetderksW Heetderks
Dr. Heetderks is the Director of Extramural Science Programs with the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH. The extramural program supports approximately 800 research and training grants at universities and research centers throughout the United States in the fields of bioengineering and biomedical imaging.

M PavelM Pavel
Dr. Pavel currently holds a joint faculty appointment in the College of Computer & Information Science and Bouvé College of Health Sciences at Northeastern University. His current research is in the intersection of computational modeling of complex behaviors of biological systems, engineering, and cognitive science with a focus on information fusion, pattern recognition, augmented cognition, and the development of multimodal and perceptual humancomputer interfaces.

S AcharyaS Acharya
Dr. Acharya is an Assistant Research Professor with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University. He serves as the Graduate Program Director of the Center for Bioengineering Innovation and Design with the Whiting School of Engineering. His research focuses on neural engineering.

M AkayM Akay
Dr. Akay is the Founding Chair of the Biomedical Engineering Department and the John S. Dunn Professor of Biomedical Engineering with the University of Houston. He has played a key role in promoting biomedical education in the world by writing and editing several books, special issues of prestigious journals including the PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, and giving more than 100 keynote, plenary and invited talks.

A MairalA Mairal
Dr. Mairal is the Director of Global Exchange Programs with Stanford University. He has senior leadership roles with India and Singapore Biodesign programs. In these roles, he is responsible for developing an extensive network of partners from the industry, academia, regulatory bodies, and investors in Asia and the U.S. to foster these Asia-focused programs. Furthermore, he directs the NIH-funded Global Exchange Program.

B WheelerB Wheeler
Dr. Wheeler served as the 20142015 President of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, the world’s largest, oldest, and most global bioengineering society. His research interests lie in the application of electrical engineering methodologies to neuroscience. His work inuenced the development of neural spike sorting technologies.

C DacsoC Dacso
Dr. Dacso is a Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Medicine with the Baylor College of Medicine, a Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen University Professor with the University of Houston, an Adjunct Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering with Rice University, and a Consultant to the Biological Diagnostic Institute with Dublin City University.

T SunderT Sunder
Dr. Sunder is a Senior Consultant and Cardiothoracic and Transplant Surgeon at the Apollo Group of Hospitals, Chennai, India. He is also a Faculty Member of Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery at the Endo-Ethicon Institute, Chennai, Visiting Faculty, Department of Surgery, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India; and Academic Coordinator, of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai.

N LovellN Lovell
Dr. Lovell is one of the key researchers leading a research and development program to develop an Australian bionic eye. He is with the Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, UNSW, where he is a Scientia Professor. His research work has covered areas of expertise ranging from cardiac modeling, telehealth technologies, biological signal processing, and visual prosthesis design.

M GerberM Gerber
Mr. Gerber is the Senior Research and Development Director of Medtronic, Mumbai, India. He is the Core Team Leader (Program General Manager) for complex neurostimulation systems and new therapy development. He is responsible for developing and commercializing new therapies and products, developing business cases and managing execution to ensure that therapy/product development meet goals for time-to-market, quality, development expense, and product cost.

M ShahM Shah
Mr. Shah is the Vice President and South Asia and Managing Director of India Medtronic. As the Vice President of South Asia, he is responsible for driving the company’s expansion and growth in the region, in addition to running the entire operations for Medtronic South Asia. He has over 28 years of experience in leadership, sales and marketing, and corporate planning positions in Healthcare, Specialty Chemicals, Telecommunications and Petrochemicals.

S G SenthilvelS G Senthilvel
Mr. Senthilvel is a Subject Matter Expert and an Industry Solutions Leader of Healthcare and Public Sector with IBM India. He is professionally qualified in the healthcare and life sciences domain with over 17 years of professional experience with
MNC Healthcare and IT organizations, as a SME, Principal Industry Consultant, Solution Architect, and Business Analyst.

M D WangM D Wang
Dr. Wang is a Tenured Associate Professor with The Wallace H. Coulter Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Tech and Emory University, and a Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Cancer Scholar. She is also the Director of Bioinformatics and Biocomputing Core with the Emory-Georgia Tech Cancer Nanotechnology Center. Her bioinformatics software systems, such as caCORRECT and omniBiomarker have been certified by the National Cancer Informatics Program of NCI/NIH (a.k.a caBIG) as silver-level compatible.

B BhargavaB Bhargava
Dr. Bhargava is a Professor with the Department of Cardiology, Cardiothoracic Sciences Centre, and an Executive Director of the Stanford India Biodesign Centre and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. He is one of the foremost leaders in biomedical innovation, public health, medical education, and medical research in India.

Engineering a High-Throughput 3D in vitro Glioblastoma Model

Y. Fan, N. G. Avci, D. T. Nguyen, A. Dragomir, Y. M. Akay, F. Xu, M. Akay

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. The existing treatment for GBM, which involves a combination of resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has a very limited success rate with a median survival rate of less than 1 year, mainly because of the failure of early detection and effective treatment. We present a novel 3D GBM cell culture model based on microwells that could mimic the in vivo environment and help to bypass the lack of suitable animal models for preclinical toxicity tests…


See complete bios of the authors in the full version of this article.

Y FanY Fan
Dr. Fan is currently a postdoc with University of Houston. His research interests are in 3D nano/micro-technologies, cutting-edge point of care methods, and translational research.

N G AvciN G Avci
Ms. Avci is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston. Her research interest is to investigate the application of hydrogel microwells for in vitro 3D controlled-sized Glioblastoma (GBM) spheres formation and the treatment of GBM spheres with adenoviruses.

D T NguyenD T Nguyen
Mr. Nguyen is currently a PhD Candidate in Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Houston. His research interest is in the areas of drug delivery system, 3D cell culture and diagnostics.

A DragomirA Dragomir
Mr. Nguyen is currently a PhD Candidate in Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Houston. His research interest is in the areas of drug delivery system, 3D cell culture and diagnostics.

Y M AkayY M Akay
Dr. Akay is currently an Instructional and Research Assistant Professor at the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston. Her current research interests include Molecular Neuroengineering, Neural Growth and Neurodegeneration.

F XuF Xu
Dr. Fu is a full professor at Xi’an Jiaotong University. His current research aims at advancing human health through academic excellence in education and research that integrates engineering, science biology and medicine with focus on Bio-thermo-mechanics, Engineering of Cell Microenvironment, and Point-of-Care Technologies.

M AkayM Akay
Dr. Akay is author/coauthor/editor of 14 books and giving more 50 keynote, plenary and invited talks at the international meetings including the first, second and third Latin-American Conference on Biomedical Engineering ’98, 01, 04. He has played a key role in promoting the biomedical education in the world by writing several prestigious books and editing the Biomedical Engineering Book Series.

An Optokinetic Nystagmus Detection Method for Use with Young Children

M. Sangi, B. Thompson, J. Turuwhenua

The detection of vision problems in early childhood can prevent neuro-developmental disorders such as amblyopia. However, accurate clinical assessment of visual function in young children is challenging. Optokinetic Nystagmus is a reflexive sawtooth motion of the eye that occurs in response to drifting stimuli that may allow for objective measurement of visual function in young children if appropriate child-friendly eye tracking techniques…


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M SangiM Sangi
Mr. Sangi is studying toward a PhD at the Auckland Bioengineering Institute. Mehrdad’s doctoral research is focused on automated optokinetic nystagmus detection methods for use with young children.

B ThompsonB Thompson
Dr. Thompson has completed postdoctoral fellowships in the Department of Psychology, UCLA, USA and the Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Canada. He currently holds faculty positions at the University of Waterloo, Canada and the University of Auckland, New Zealand.

J TuruwhenuaJ Turuwhenua
Dr. Turuwhenua currently holds a joint appointment at the Auckland Bioengineering Institute and the Department of Optometry and Vision Science at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Jason’s interests lie in the application of techniques from image processing and computer vision to eye related problems.

See Additional Current Articles

Published Articles

An Integrated Model of Patient and Staff Satisfaction Using Queuing Theory

A. Komashie, A. Mousavi, P.J. Clarkson, T. Young

This paper investigates the connection between patient satisfaction, waiting time, staff satisfaction and service time. It uses a variety of models to enable improvement against experiential and operational health service goals. Patient satisfaction levels are estimated using a model based on waiting (waiting times)…


See complete bios of the authors in the full version of this article.

A KomashieA Komashie
Dr. Komashie is currently at Wycliffe Hall College, Oxford University and affiliated with the Engineering Design Centre in Cambridge University where he worked at a Postdoctoral Researcher. His research interests are in the application of Queuing Theory, Discrete Event Simulation, Design Process, Complexity and Systems Thinking for improving healthcare delivery.

A MousaviA Mousavi
Dr. Mousavi is a Senior Lecturer and the Head of the Systems Engineering Research Group at Brunel University. His research interests are in Mathematical Modelling and Simulation, Applied Control and Computing.

P J ClarksonP J Clarkson
Dr. Clarkson is the Director of the Engineering Design Centre in the Engineering Department of Cambridge University, UK. His research interests are in the general area of engineering design, particularly the development of design methodologies to address specific design issues, like process management, change management, healthcare design and inclusive design.

T YoungT Young
Dr. Young is Professor of Healthcare Systems at Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK. His research interests are the organization and delivery of care and the role and value of technology. He is also a leader of the Cumberland Initiative; a collaboration between health, industry and academia, committed to building a national Centre in services and systems excellence.

Principal Dynamic Mode Analysis of EEG Data for Assisting the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Y. Kang, J. Escudero, D. Shin, E. Ifeachor, V. Marmarelis

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the western world and in the future its incidence is expected to double every 20 years. Because a definitive diagnosis can only be made by autopsy and AD pathology could start years before the first symptoms, there is a need for objective, non-invasive and affordable means to support clinicians in the detection…


See complete bios of the authors in the full version of this article.

Y KangY Kang
Ms. Kang is currently pursuing a PhD degree with the Biomedical Simulations Resource (BMSR), University of Southern California, CA, USA. Her research interests include biomedical signal processing, computational modeling of dynamic physiological systems, with the focus on improved clinical diagnosis.

J EscuderoJ Escudero
Dr. Escudero is a tenure-track faculty member (Chancellor’s Fellow) at the University of Edinburgh, UK. His research interests include biomedical signal processing, multiway decompositions, graph theory and pattern recognition in clinical applications.

D ShinD Shin
Dr. Shin is a senior research associate at the Department of Biomedical Engineering of the University of Southern California. His primary research interests are: statistical signal processing, linear and nonlinear dynamic modeling of biomedical systems, with special focus on multi-input/multi-output and closed-loop modeling with applications to neural information processing and physiological autoregulation.

E IfeachorE Ifeachor
Dr. Ifeachor is co-editor in chief of the journal Source Code for Biology & Medicine. His current research includes subject-specific bio data analysis for patient-specific early diagnosis and predictive healthcare in the areas of dementia, Parkinson’s disease, brain injury in the early stages of life and cancer.

V MarmarelisV Marmarelis
Dr. Marmarelis is a Professor of Biomedical Engineering at USC and co-Director of the Biomedical Simulations Resource, a research center funded by NIH. His research interests are dynamic nonlinear modeling of biomedical systems; neural information processing; modeling of physiological autoregulation; multimodal ultrasound tomography (MUT) for diagnostic imaging; and model-based diagnostic physiomarkers.

Development of Point of Care Testing Device for Neurovascular Coupling from Simultaneous Recording of EEG and NIRS During Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

U. Jindal, M. Sood, A. Dutta, S.R. Chowdhury

This paper presents a point-of-care testing device for bedside measurement of cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve. The device detects neurovascular coupling (NVC) from simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram and near infra red spectroscopy during anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Studies in healthy subjects and stroke survivors…


See complete bios of the authors in the full version of this article.

U JindalU Jindal
Mr. Jindal is pursuing a M.S. degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India. His research interests involve the development of embedded systems for biomedical applications.

M SoodM Sood
Ms. Sood is pursuing a M.S. degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India. Her research interests involve the development of solutions to healthcare needs and embedded system design.

A DuttaA Dutta
Dr. Dutta is is currently the Principal Investigator of the Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique – INRIA’s NeuroPhys4NeuroRehab project in the DEMAR research group of the Montpellier Laboratory of Informatics, Robotics, and Microelectronics.

SR ChowdhurySR Chowdhury
Dr. Chowdhury is currently an Assistant Professor at the Centre for VLSI and Embedded Systems Technology, IIIT, Hyderabad, India. His research interests span around the development of Biomedical Embedded Systems, VLSI architectures and ASIC design of intelligent signal processing circuits.

Automated Lung Segmentation and Image Quality Assessment for Clinical 3-D/4-D-Computed Tomography

J. Wei, G. Li

4-D-computed tomography (4DCT) provides not only a new dimension of patient-specific information for radiation therapy planning and treatment, but also a challenging scale of data volume to process and analyze. Manual analysis using existing 3-D tools is unable to keep up with vastly increased 4-D data volume, automated processing and analysis are thus needed to process 4DCT data effectively and efficiently…


See complete bios of the authors in the full version of this article.

J WeiJ Wei
Mr. Wei is currently an Associate Professor with the Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, NY, USA. His research interests include multimodal computing, signal/image/video processing, computer vision, machine learning, and medical imaging.

G LiG Li
Mr. Li is currently an Assistant Attending Physicist with the Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. His research interests include multimodal image-guided radiotherapy and radiosurgery, motion management with 4-D imaging, and 4-D treatment planning.

Identifying Cancer Biomarkers From Microarray Data Using Feature Selection and Semisupervised Learning

D. Chakraborty, U. Maulik

Microarrays have now gone from obscurity to being almost ubiquitous in biological research. At the same time, the statistical methodology for microarray analysis has progressed from simple visual assessments of results to novel algorithms for analyzing changes in expression profiles. In a micro-RNA (miRNA) or gene-expression profiling experiment…


See complete bios of the authors in the full version of this article.

D ChakrabortyD Chakraborty
Mr. Chakraborty has a master’s degree in computer science and engineering from Bengal Engineering College, Howrah, India. He is currently an Associate Professor with the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Murshidabad College of Engineering and Technology. His research interests include supervised and semisupervised learning, pattern classification, remote sensing, and bioinformatics.

U MaulikU Maulik
Dr. Maulik has been a professor with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, since 2004. He has co-authored seven books and over 250 research publications. His research interests include computational intelligence, bioinformatics, combinatorial optimization, pattern recognition, and data mining.

Design, Fabrication and Experimental Validation of Novel Flexible Silicon-based Dry Sensors for Electroencephalography Signal Measurements

Y.H. Yu, S. W. Lu, L. D. Liao, C. T. Lin

Many electroencephalography (EEG) sensors, including conventional wet and dry sensors, use materials that can cause skin irritation and discomfort. To overcome this drawback, this study reports on the design and human testing of a SGS-certified, silicon-based dry-contact EEG sensor. In addition to being non-irritating, the acicular sensors are lightweight, flexible, and capable of easily fitting to the scalp…

Editorial Comments

On recent paper of Yi-Shin Yu et al., It is quite obvious that the author as well as the reviewer(s) are confusing “silicon” as “silicone”, throughout the entire session of this paper. As is known well, “silicon” (Si26) is an atomic substance at mid of the periodic table and brother of carbon and germanium, basic material of semiconductor which supports entire human informatics world now, while “silicone” is an alias of (poly)alchylsiloxian, typically known such as “silicone-oil” and/or “silicone-rubber”, where (poly)olefin family materials are reconstructed by substituting carbon (C12) with silicon (Si26). Si as single crystal is a light but hard, diamond-like material which can make even a knife, silicone could be staffed as a soft (in some case very soft like animal soft tissue). Yu in his paper obviously speaks and uses a special, conductivity gifted silicone rubber as soft, deformable skin-electrode to obtain certain (but somewhat well known) affordable result. The issue, or rather a problem, is not the essential content of his paper but his (or the all-of-authors’) confusion in terminology, however, more problematic is that the reviewer(s) of this paper for acceptance for JTEHM publication ALSO repeated this confusion, or couldn’t point-out that confusion at all. Here I would like to recommend to the editor and author to once withdraw this paper and resubmit it using correct terminology throughout the paper including the title. It is not an issue of typological errata later to be corrected just with one line “errata” comment but an issue essentially stress the dignity of JTEHM. Here I would ask editor a brave but important decision.

The “silicone and silicone” issues are explained here:

Yasuhito Takeuchi, PhD, Visiting Professor, Department of Renal and Urologic Surgery, Asahikawa Medical University. y.takeuchi@ieee.org


See complete bios of the authors in the full version of this article.

Mr. Yu is pursuing a Ph.D. degree from the Institute of Electrical Control Engineering and Brain Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. His research interests include brain research, biomedical signal processing, brain–computer interfaces and biomedical circuits and systems.

Mr. Lu is currently an Assistant Researcher with the Brain Research Center, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, where he is involved in electro-neurophysiology and biomedical signal processing.

LD LiaoLD Liao
Dr. Liao is a Senior Research Scientist and head of the Neurovascular Imaging Laboratory in Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE) at National University of Singapore. His research interests include neuroimaging, cerebral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, in vivo optical microscopy, advanced sensing techniques and design of optical system.

CT LinCT Lin
Dr. Lin is the Provost, Chair Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Professor of the Institute of Imaging and Biomedical Photonics, and Director of Brain Research Center at NCTU. Currently, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems.

Scope Statement

We focus on innovative solutions to healthcare needs from biomedical engineering, clinical engineering, and medical communities that bridge the engineering and clinical worlds. JTEHM's unique scope is original work at the intersection of engineering and clinical translation.

The journal’s focus is interdisciplinary collaborations among researchers, healthcare providers, and industry. We publish results and best practices from these translational efforts and serve as a community hub for researchers, clinicians, and developers who are addressing challenges in technology development, commercialization, and deployment for better global healthcare. Our ultimate goal is to improve the practice of engineering in translational medicine and to serve as a focal point for the nascent community. Our interactive content includes video, lively commentary, blogs, and other features to engage our clinical and engineering communities.